Capital dating back to 1000 ad
Many of the oldest skulls showed no evidence of bone healing following the operation, suggesting that the procedure was probably fatal.
But by the 1400s, survival rates approached 90 percent, and infection levels were very low, researchers say.
The European region of the world has been inhabited since before 2000 BC with Indo-European tribes invading the area by 1800 BC.
By the European Iron Age in 1200 BC, Greeks and Phoenicians were establishing Mediterranean cities.
During the Renaissance Period, Europe contributed to the fields of art, music, philosophy, and the sciences.
The new findings show that Inca surgeons had developed a detailed knowledge of cranial anatomy, said lead author Valerie Andrushko, of Southern Connecticut State University in New Haven. Beer, Plants Aided Patients Inca healers carefully avoided areas of the skull where cutting would be more likely to cause brain injury, bleeding, or infection, Andrushko noted.
The operations were conducted without the modern benefits of anesthesia and antibiotics, but medicinal plants were probably used, she said.
A similar procedure is performed today to relieve pressure caused by fluid buildup following severe head trauma.
Around the ancient Inca capital of Cuzco (see Peru map), remains dating back to A. 1000 show that surgical techniques were standardized and perfected over time, according to the report.
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While there are different environmental factors that influence the flowering dates, usually the warmer it is in March, the earlier the cherry blossoms bloom.